The Federal Republic of Germany was formed in the wake of one of the most infamous dictatorships in history – the Third Reich. That dictatorship was made possible when leaders in the Weimar Republic effectively eliminated legislative oversight of the Executive Branch. Without such oversight, Hitler acted quickly to consolidate his power and limit civil liberties, leading to the death of millions.
Given this history, it is not surprising that a key focus of the German post-war constitution was ensuring sufficient and ongoing oversight of the Executive Branch. The Bundestag – which is analogous to the United States House of Representatives – exercises this oversight power. As is stated in its public relations guide, Facts: The Bundestag at a glance, the Bundestag “exercises an important power of scrutiny over the Government. No Chancellor or government minister can escape this scrutiny.” Specifically,
The executive branch is “required to keep the Bundestag regularly informed of its plans and intentions.”
The Bundestag also has the right to appoint committees of inquiry, and it is required to do so if one quarter of its members request it. The role of these committees is to “investigate possible abuses in government and administration and possible misconduct on the part of politicians. “
The committees of inquiry can order the executive branch to submit files, and call government representatives as witnesses.
Other parliamentary groups can also demand written information on particular issues, and these can lead to “parliamentary debates in which the Government is required to present its case and answer questions.”
Even individual members “can submit written questions to the Government, and government representatives are required to give direct answers to those questions” at question and answer sessions with ministers at scheduled times.
Germany is not the only country that has experienced a struggle between its democracy and a leader who resists oversight. The book How Democracies Die, details multiple instances of democracies in both Europe and South America that were undermined and diminished by autocratic leaders who rejected legislative oversight and denied the legitimacy of their political opponents. It is not uncommon for an autocratic leader to dismiss oversight efforts as subversive, criminal, disloyal, or opposed to constitutional order. Legislative oversight is not, however, a departure from our constitutional order. Legislative oversight is one of the foundations of a democratic government.
How robust is our democracy? That depends on us. As the authors of How Democracies Die point out, “Democratic institutions depend crucially on the willingness of governing parties to defend them – even against their own leaders.” That means speaking up for democratic values and democratic institutions. Critical thinking, independent judgment, a willingness to review information from many different sources, the ability to defuse appeals to hate and fear, and dialogue across partisan lines both by citizens and parties, are all important tools for strengthening our democracy. If you care about your freedom and your democracy, use them, and request that your elected representatives do so as well.
Posted in democracy, dialogue, government, Dialogue, politics, Resources
Tagged accountabiity, Bundestag, democracy, democracy decline, executive oversight, executive power, Germany, government, legislative oversight, partisan politics, politics, United States
Just in time for Thanksgiving dinner, here are a few resources that all of you who are interested in dialogue might find useful when sitting at the dinner table.
How to Have a Conversation With Your Angry Uncle Over Thanksgiving is a neat tool for practicing your productive dialogue skills. This bot, made available through The New York Times, allows you to interact with an “angry uncle” of either liberal or conservative views. A good way to hone your technique before you meet the relatives!
Better Angels has also provided a brief guide on keeping the dinner table conversation positive by limiting the amount of political conversation that occurs,. This guide also provides tips for one on one conversations. Read Skills for Thanksgiving Conversations.
For more in depth planning, we also refer you back to these posts from the series A Metaphor From the Midwest – Weeding and Watching Part 1 and Weeding and Watching Part 2.
We wish you and yours a happy Thanksgiving and hope these resources prove useful as you enjoy spending time with your families and friends.
In a recent dialogue class for older students we were discussing the “American Dream” and how this concept shifted over time from a dream based in community (“with liberty and justice for all”) to one rooted in more individually focused consumerism, with a particular focus on home ownership. In previous discussions members of the class had expressed a concern for loss of community and expressed dismay at our bitterly partisan politics. On this day, the class agreed that one dream they had for the next generation was a political system that was less chaotic and divisive, more productive, and one that encouraged individuals and groups to explore ideas, analyze information, and work together.
What might help us move toward that dream? A place to start is promoting dialogue rather than talking past each other. Another class, held in the Spring of 2018 developed this “citizen’s guide” to encourage just that. We recommend this guide to anyone interested in more productive political dialogue before, during, and after our upcoming elections.
Posted in democracy, dialogue, government, Dialogue, Our Work, politics, Resources
Tagged communication, community, Dialogue, guides, healing our politics, partisan divides, partisan politics, politics, Resources, teaching, USA
This year the American Bar Association’s Mediation Week returns to the themes of civility and Rule of Law. We are participating in Mediation Week in the following ways:
The ABA has also put together an useful list of resources for those interested in dialogue.
Posted in ABA Mediation Week, democracy, dialogue, government, Dialogue, politics, Resources
Tagged Better Angels, civic engagement, civility, democracy, Dialogue, mediation week, partisan politics, partisanship, politics, Resources, rule of law, USA
“Democracy must be reborn in each generation and education is its midwife.” (John Dewey)
How do we teach engaged citizenship and the kind of deliberative dialogue that can lead to wise public judgments? We can’t leave it to to schools, and we certainly can’t leave it to political parties who promote factionalism and hyper-partisanship. Each generation must teach democratic values and practices to the next. My generation (Boomers) hasn’t done the best job.
As one small effort to remedy this deficit, we have written several e-books designed to help citizens and community organizations plan and host public dialogues. These books are relatively short and provide pragmatic advice related to planning, hosting, and facilitating dialogue in your community. In honor of Law Day and last week’s National Week of Conversation we have discounted the prices by 50% and the discounted prices will stay in effect until May 21 when the higher prices return. Following is a short description and link to each book. We would welcome your feedback!
Understanding the Facilitation Cycle –
For busy people about to engage a tough crowd on challenging issues. A quick, 20 page read. There are eight phases in the Facilitation Cycle. The first phase, Greeting, starts even before your meeting begins and before your participants come into the room. The last, Send Forth, magnifies the impact of your successful event for days and weeks after it has concluded. Current discounted price $3.99 (normally $7.99).
Dealing With Disruptors –
What if you could make that disruptive energy productive? What if you could work with disruptors to increase understanding, broaden support, and build trust in your community? Dealing with Disruptors provides tools and a framework to make that happen. Current discounted price $4.99 (normally $10.99).
Navigating With 3D Evaluation: Public Dialogue for Results
– Public engagement and dialogue can achieve valuable, lasting outcomes, but only when supported by ongoing, systematic analysis. This book shows you how to work with participants to set goals, engage everyone through a shared vision, maintain trust through common priorities and interim targets, navigate around obstacles like budget cutbacks and changes in political leadership, determine who is responsible for honoring the commitments made around the dialogue process, and demonstrate the value of your work. Current discounted price $4.99 (normally $9.99).
Posted in Communities In Conflict, democracy, dialogue, government, Dialogue, Our Tools, Our Work, Resources
Tagged community, democracy, education, facilitation, government, next generation, politics, Resources, teaching, Tools